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Learning Disorders in Written Expression/Dysgraphia

“Dysgraphia”' and “specific learning disorder in written expression” are terms used to describe those individuals who struggle to produce and/or organize their thoughts in writing. Historically, dysgraphia referred to difficulties in the production of written text (i.e., handwriting), often due to weaknesses in fine motor coordination. Preschool children may display an awkward pencil grip and/or body position when writing, may tire easily when writing, and avoid writing and drawing tasks. 

As they age, their handwriting may appear illegible. Such issues are described as “fine motor dysgraphia” or “motoric dysgraphia,” and they may be diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder by occupational therapists. Similarly, difficulties with handwriting are also thought to be the result of underlying visual spatial weaknesses, which affect letter size, spacing, and line placement. Contact us to schedule an evaluation. 

Resources

LD Online: What is Dysgraphia?

Understood: What is Dysgraphia?

Understood: What is Written Expression Disorder?

Signs of & Accommodations for Dysgraphia

What is Developmental Coordination Disorder?

Article on Dysgraphia vs. Written Expression Disorder

Video: What is Dysgraphia?

Assistive Technology

  • Speech-to-text software, such as Dragon Naturally Speaking, is a resource that will help with the efficiency of writing. Client will be able to dictate reports and papers, and spelling will automatically be completed.

  • One Note and/or use of a Smart Pen (e.g., Livescribe) may assist with classroom note-taking.

  • Grammarly assists with editing and checking for spelling errors. 

  • MindView is used for visual mapping, outlining, writing, and presenting. It aids in brainstorming & organization of ideas when writing papers.

  • Co:Writer assists with word prediction, translation, and speech recognition, which is helpful for writing fluency.

  • Think with Success provides an individualized evaluation of assistive technology resources for students with Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, ADHD, and/or other Executive Functioning weaknesses.

  • LD OnLine: Assistive Technology Information

Referrals

SunnyDays Therapy

St. David's Center

Minnetonka Pediatric Therapy Center

Rosenberg Center

Groves Learning Organization

Huntington Learning Center

Books

Dysgraphia: A Parent's Guide to Understanding Dysgraphia and Helping a Dysgraphic Child 

The Dysgraphia Sourcebook: Everything You Need to Help Your Child

The Writing Revolution: A Guide to Advancing Thinking Through Writing in All Subjects and Grades 

Essential Writing Skills for College and Beyond

Eli, The Boy Who Hated to Write, 2nd edition

Writing Right: A Story About Dysgraphia (kids)

Aaron Slater, Illustrator (kids)

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